What is diabetes mellitus type 2?
Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes mellitus is a condition of type 2 diabetes, it is also commonly referred to as diabetes.
There are 3 types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a long-standing (chronic) disease condition. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin or can not use insulin properly, a special hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas.
Insulin is very important because it controls the amount of sugar (glucose) that the body cells get from the blood. People with diabetes have a lot of sugar in the blood, but not enough for the body cells. This condition causes severe complications in the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nervous system, gums and teeth.
How common is type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. As many as 95% of cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes mellitus. In general, diabetes can strike at all people of all ages, including children. However, type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adulthood and old age. In addition, obese and infrequent people have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Signs & symptoms
What are the characteristics and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2?
What are the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that has significant symptoms. Those who have type 2 diabetes mellitus often do not experience any symptoms early on. They may even be unaware of the symptoms for several years.
• Increased hunger
• Thirst increases
• Frequent urination, especially at night
• Slow wound or frequent infections
• The view is blurry
• Pain or numbness in the feet and hands
• Itching of the genitals (female)
• Erectile dysfunction (men)
There are several possible signs and symptoms not mentioned above. If you have any further questions about a symptom, please contact your doctor.
When should I see a doctor?
If you have any signs or symptoms of the above mentioned or have any questions, please contact your doctor. Everyone’s body reacts differently. Talk with your doctor to determine what works best for you.
What causes diabetes mellitus type 2?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that can be caused by certain things. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance (immunity to insulin). The result, the cells can not receive blood sugar to be processed into energy.
When sugar can not enter the cells, blood sugar levels rise high. This is called hyperglycemia.
The cause of the defense of insulin include:
- overweight or obese: improved fat to make the body experience insulin resistance so that the difficulty of using insulin properly.
- the offspring or when a family has a medical history of diabetes can also be affected. Genetic factors are also the factors that lead to type 2 diabetes.
The risk factors
Who’s at risk affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that is not yet fully understood the experts. Because, most people have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and some not. However, there are some things that obviously increases the risk factors of type 2 diabetes, such as:
- weight. Have excess weight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The thicker the fatty tissues, cells are increasingly immune terhadapinsulin. But it is not just the overweight people who have type 2 diabetes risk.
- the distribution of fat. If your body store fat on the abdomen, your risk is greater experience than type 2 diabetes if your body store fat in other parts, such as the hips and thighs.
- inactive lifestyle. The more you passive, the greater the risk you have type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, use glucose as energy, and make Your cells the more sensitive to insulin.
- family medical history. The risk of type 2 diabetes suffered the greater if a parent or sibling you have type 2 diabetes.
- race. Although it remains unclear why, most people of a race – including the black race, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans – are more likely to have risk against type 2 diabetes than the white race.
- Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as You grow in age, particularly after the age of 45 years. This may be because people in this age tend to be less moving, loss of muscle mass, and gain weight with age. In addition, the aging process also results in decreased pancreatic beta cell function as producing insulin. However, type 2 diabetes has also increased dramatically in adolescence, and early adulthood.
- Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar levels higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. If not resolved, prediabetes can continue into type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational Diabetes. If you have diabetes while pregnant, the risk of you having type 2 diabetes increases. If you gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 4 pounds, your baby is also at risk of experiencing diabetes type 2 in his adult life.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome. For women who experience this syndrome – which is the irregularity menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, and obesity – diabetes risk will increase.
Drug and Treatment
What are diabetes mellitus type 2 medications that are commonly used?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that cannot be cured, but can be controlled. Once you are diagnosed, you can learn what you need to do to stay healthy. Just needs some changes and commitment to live a healthier lifestyle. Here are a few things you can do to treat the condition of diabetes that you have:
- Healthy Diet
Although people with diabetes have high blood glucose, is not meant by fasting (with the goal of reducing the intake of glucose) will resolve the issue. If you are having undiagnosed diabetes, you need to undergo a dietsehat that will help control Your glucose levels. Diet experts can assist you in putting together a diet. If you want to live fast, you have to mengonsultasikan this in advance with your doctor.
You should do sport regularly (3-4 times a week for approximately 30 minutes) and life with active because by moving can control blood sugar levels. In addition, you should also keep your feet especially when tasted baal, tingling, numbness, and there is a wound, and check your eyes regularly to prevent complications in the future.
- Blood Sugar Control and Insulin Therapy
Your doctor will review your condition and determine which medication or therapy is right for you. Your doctor may give you one drug or give you a combination of medications. Consult with your doctor what are the side effects of the drug and what to do when side effects arise. One of the most common side effects of the drug is weakness due to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). For first aid, drink warm sweet tea and see your doctor immediately.
What are the usual tests for diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes can be diagnosed with a blood test as follows:
• Fasting glucose test
• Randomized glucose test
• Oral glucose test
• A1c hemoglobin test
If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you should go to the doctor every 3 months, so you can:
• Examines the skin and bones of the feet and feet.
• Check if your feet are numb.
• Check your blood pressure.
• Examine the back of your eyes using a device with special light.
• Complete the A1C test (every 6 months if your diabetes is well controlled)
These tests and checks will help you and your doctor monitor diabetes and prevent problems caused by diabetes. In addition, you should perform the following checks once a year:
• Check your cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
• Doing tests once a year ensures your kidneys work well (microalbumin and serum creatinine).
• Go to the dentist every 6 months for cleaning and overall screening. Make sure your dentist and your health professional know that you have diabetes.
Treatment at home
What are the lifestyle changes to overcome diabetes (diabetes mellitus type 2)?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that can be treated and maintained by making lifestyle changes. Home treatment can help you deal with type 2 diabetes, such as:
• Keep your blood sugar level normal with a target of fasting blood sugar (GDP) <100 mg / dL and blood sugar 2 hours after meals (post prandial) <140 mg / dL.
• Regular exercise and a healthy diet specific to diabetes
• Try to have a normal weight with a target body mass index of 18.5- <23
• Eat healthy diet foods: fibrous foods, vegetables, fruit, low sugar, low fat, and foods with white flour.
• Go to the ophthalmologist every year and dentist twice a year
• Call your doctor if you can not eat or drink because of vomiting
• Call your doctor if you feel weak after taking blood sugar control medication
• Call your doctor if your blood sugar level is suddenly abnormal
• Do not smoke
In addition, foot care is very important in people with diabetes because one of the frequent complications are legs that numb or numb so often diabetics are not aware of any foot injuries. Injuries to diabetics need special attention and treatment and, if not treated promptly, can lead to infections that often lead to amputation, even death.
Foot care that you can do independently is as follows:
• Always wear footwear, including sand and water
• Examining the feet daily on a regular basis, eg each before bedtime, to see if any skin is peeling, redness, or wound
• Check footwear before wearing. Are there any pebbles or other objects that can cause injury.
• Cut nails regularly
Keep your feet clean and not wet. When the skin is dry, use a moisturizer.
• Shoes should not be too narrow or loose. Do not use high heels.
• If there is callus (callus) or fish eye, flatten regularly.
• Do not use pillows or bottles of hot water or rocks for legs. Numb legs can not feel the heat or pain so if there is burns or scratches, chances are you do not realize it.
If you have any questions, please consult your doctor for the best understanding and solution for you.